1 Prospectus 1


2 The Analogistic Tradition from Anaximander to Bonnet 13
  The Seeds of Recapitulation in Greek Science?     13  

Ontogeny and Phylogeny in the Conflict of "Evolution" and Epigenesis: The Idyll of Charles Bonnet    17

  Appendix: The Revolution in "Evolution"     28  
3 Transcendental Origins, 1793-1860 33
  Naturphilosophie: An Expression of Developmentalism     35  
Two Leading Recapitulationists among the Naturphilosophen: Oken and Meckel     39  
  Oken's Classification of Animals by Linear Additions of Organs     40  
  J. F. Meckel' s Sober Statement of the Same Principles     45  
  Serres and the French Transcendentalists     47  
  Recapitulation and the Theory of Developmental Arrests     49  
  Von Baer's Critique of Recapitulation     52  
  The Direction of Development and Classification of Animals     52  

Von Baer and Naturphilosophie; What Is the Universal Direction of Development?     59

  Louis Agassiz and the Threefold Parallelism     63  
4 Evolutionary Triumph, 1859–1900 69
  Evolutionary Theory and Zoological Practice      69  
  Darwin and the Evolution of Von Baer's Laws      70  
  Evolution and the Mechanics of Recapitulation     74  
  Ernst Haeckel: Phylogeny as the Mechanical Cause of Ontogeny      76  
  The Mechanism of Recapitulation 78  
  The American Neo-Lamarckians: The Law of Acceleration as Evolution's Motor     85  
  Progressive Evolution by Acceleration      85  
  The Extent of Parallelism      88  
  Why Does Recapitulation Dominate the History of Life?     90  
  Alpheus Hyatt and Universal Acceleration     91  
  Lamarckism and the Memory Analogy     96  
  Recapitulation and Darwinism     100  
  Appendix: The Evolutionary Translation of von Baer's Laws     109  
5 Pervasive Influence 115
  Criminal Anthropology     120  
  Racism     126  
  Child Development     135  
  Primary Education     147  
  Freudian Psychoanalysis     155  
  Epilogue     164  
6 Decline, Fall, and Generalizations 167
  A Clever Argument     167  
  An Empirical Critique     168  
  Organs or Ancestors: The Transformation of Haeckel's Heterochrony     170  
  Interpolations into Juvenile Stages     176  
  Introduction of Juvenile Features into the Adults of Descendants     177  
  What Had Become of von Baer's Critique?     184  
  Benign Neglect: Recapitulation and the Rise of Experimental Embryology 186  
  The Prior Assumptions of Recapitulation     186  
  Wilhelm His and His Physiological Embryology: A Preliminary Skirmish 189  
  Roux's Entwicklungsmechanik and the Biogenetic Law     194  

Recapitulation and Substantive Issues in Experimental Embryology: The New Preformationism     197

  Mendel's Resurrection, Haeckel's Fall, and the Generalization of Recapitulation     202  


7 Heterochrony and the Parallel of Ontogeny and Phylogeny 209
  Acceleration and Retardation     209  
  Confusion in and after Haeckel's Wake     209  
  Guidelines for a Resolution     211  

The Reduction of de Beer's Categories of Heterochrony to acceleration and Retardation     221

  A Historical Paradox: The Supposed Dominance of Recapitulation 228  
  Dissociability and Heterochrony      234  
  Correlation and Dissociability     234  
  Dissociation of the Three Processes      236  
  A Metric for Dissociation     238  
  Temporal Shift as a Mechanism of Dissociation      244  
  A Clock Model of Heterochrony     246  
  Appendix: A Note on the Multivariate Representation of Dissociation     263  
8 The Ecological and Evolutionary Significance of Heterochrony 267
  The Argument from Frequency     267  
  The Importance of Recapitulation     267  
  The Importance of Heterochronic Change: Selected Cases     269  
  Frequency of Paedomorphosis in the Origin of Higher Taxa     277  
  A Critique of the Classical Significance of Heterochrony     282  
  The Classical Arguments     282  
  Retrospective and Immediate Significance     285  
  Heterochrony, Ecology, and Life-History Strategies     289  
  The Potential Ease and Rapidity of Heterochronic Change     294  
  The Control of Metamorphosis in Insects      294  
  Amphibian Paedomorphosis and the Thyroid Gland     299  
9 Progenesis and Neoteny 303
  Insect Progenesis     304  
  Prothetely and Metathetely      304  
  Paedo genesis (Parthenogenetic Progenesis) in Gall Midges and Beetles      306  
  Progenesis in Wingless, Parthenogenetic Aphids      308  
  Additional Cases of Progenesis with a Similar Ecological Basis      311  
  Neotenic Solitary Locusts: Are They an Exception to the Rule?       312  
  Amphibian Neoteny      319  
  The Ecological Determinants of Progenesis     324  
  Unstable Environments     324  
  Colonization     326  
  Parasites     328  
  Male Dispersal     330  
  Progenesis as an Adaptive Response to Pressures for Small Size     332  

The Role of Heterochrony in Macroevolution: Contrasting Flexibilities for Progenesis and Neoteny     336

  Progenesis     336  
  Neoteny     341  
  The Social Correlates of Neoteny in Higher Vertebrates     345  
10 Retardation and Neoteny in Human Evolution 352
  The Seeds of Neoteny     352  
  The Fetalization Theory of Louis Bolk     356  
  Bolk's Data     356  
  Bolk's Interpretation     359  
  Bolk's Evolutionary Theory    361  
  A Tradition of Argument     363  
  Retardation in Human Evolution     365  
  Morphology in the Matrix of Retardation     376  
  Of Enumeration     376  
  Of Prototypes     384  
  Of Correlation     390  
  The Adaptive Significance of Retarded Development     397  
11 Epilogue 405
  Notes     413  
  Bibliography     441  
  Glossary     479  
  Index     487